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Full text of "Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin. Number 12, October 1905"

Entered, Auiraat 27, leaa. at Phlladislphta, Pa., as Secnnd.Clane Matter, under Act nf Coneress of .luly t6. ($P4 



PEN N S Y LVAN I A M U S E U M 

AND SCHOOL OF rNDUSTRIAL ART 



Boarb ot ^trustees 



The Governor of the 5tate, Ex-Of. 

Robert C. H. Brock Thomas Dolan 

James BuTTERvroRiH Harrington- Fitzgerald 

JohnG. Carruth Charles H. HARDmo 

George H. Cliff Mrs. 'John Hareisok 

Isaac H. Clothier John Story Jenks . 

John H. Converse Alfred C. Lambdin 
Charles E. Dana 



The Mayor of the City, Rx-Of. 
John T. Morris 
Mrs. Edward H. Ogden 
William Platt Pepper 
Theodore C. Search 
Samltel Gusttne Thompson 
C "N. \^'eyca;\dt 
William Wood 



Vice-Presidents 



©fficers 

THEODORE C. SEARCH, President 

WILLIAM PLATT, PEPPER,. ' 

JOHN STORY JENKS, f 

GEORGE H. CLIFF, Treasurer 

EDWIN ATLEE BARBER. Secretary and Curator 

WILLIAM PLATT PEPPER, Director^ 

LESLIE W. MILLER, Principal of the School 



EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, -Editor 
M.VRY H: SHAFF'NE'R,. Associate Edito 



Bulletin 



jTor October, IRineteen 1Hun^re^ anc Jflve 
CONTENTS 

Page 

Ceramicana . . . . . .By Edwin A. Barber 6i 

The Art Department of the School By How,a.rd Fremont Stratton 72 

Pigeon Whistles . . .... . . . -77 

Wall Papers ^ . . . , , . , , , , .79 

Enamels on Metal . . , , . , , , , .81 

Editorial . , ' , , . . . . . . - 83 

Notes . , . , , . . . , , , .85 



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in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/pennsylvaniamuse12unse 




SEDAN CHAIR 

Elaborately Painted and Gilded 

Italian, Eighteenth Century 

Given by Mr. John T. Morris 



BULLETIN 



THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



October i, 1905 



THIRD YEAR 



Number 12 



CERAMICANA 

The Oldest Known Example of American Transfer Printing 

The old pottery at Jersey City. X. J., was the first in tliis country to decorate 
earthenware by transfer printing. The designs were engraved on plates of 
copper, from which prints were taken on tissue paper, by means of prepared ink, 
and while still wet, were transferred to the surface of the ware. Until recentl}-, 
the earliest known examples of pottery from this factory, so decorated, were pro- 
duced about 1840. Of these, a large water pitcher bearing the portrait of Gen. 
William H. Harrison, printed 
in black, is the best example 
of early American transfer 
printing that has been pre- 
served. There is in the Penn- 
sylvania Museum -a white 
earthenware plate embellished 
with a blue printed device 
known as the "Canova" pat- 
tern, which bears the Jersey 
City mark. This design was 
copied from an engraving first 
introduced by John Ridgway, 
of Hanley, England, a year or 
so previous to the date men- 
tioned above. 

The Jersey City Pottery 
was established in 1825 and re- 
mained in active operation for 
about sixty-seven years. Here 
many of the foremost Ameri- 
can potters learned their trade 
and during its existence the 
manufacture of almost every 
ware produced in England 
was attempted. It now appears 




YELLOW POTTERY JUG 



ey City Po 



62 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSVLVANL^ MUSEUAl 




YELLOW POTTERY JUG 



Fayette" 
y, about 1825 



tliat transfer printing- must 
have been introduced soon 
after the factory began opera- 
tions, as is shown by a most 
interesting example of ware 
recently acquired by this Mu- 
seum. This is a small jug or 
pitcher, of coarse yellow clay, 
decorated on the sides with 
rude black prints, evidently 
intended to commemorate the 
opening of the Erie Canal in 
1825, during Lafayette's visit 
in the United States. The 
outer surface of the jug shows 
distinctly the corrugations 
produced b\' the revolution of 
the wheel. On one side is a 
portrait of "President Wash- 
ington," while on the other is 
the bust of General Lafayette 
surrounded by the words 
"Welcome La Fayette, the Na- 
tion's Guest." In front is a 
view of the Aqueduct Bridge 
at Rochester. It is a rude and homely production, but is one of the most interest- 
ing specimens of American ceramic art that has yet come to light, illustrating as 
it does the very first attempt in this country to decorate pottery by means of 
copper-plate printing. 

There are, doubtless, other pieces from this old establishment which bear 
transfer-printed designs, produced between 1825 and 1840, but it is probable 
that many of them were not marked and consequently they have not been recog- 
nized by collectors. As late as about 1850 a large number of engraved copper 
plates were still stored in the old building (which was torn down in 1892), 
showing that this style of decoration was practiced to a considerable extent at 
one time, but these plates have long since found their way into the melting pot, 
as old copper. 

When the jug here figured was made the concern was known as The 
Jersey Porcelain and Earthenware Company, having been incorporated on 
December 10, 1825, in "the town of Jersey, Count}- of Bergen," under an act 
of the New Jersey Legislature. In the following year the products of the 
factory were awarded a silver medal at the e.xhibition of the Franklin Institute, 
Philadelphia, as being the "best china from American materials." There are 
in the Museum collection several pieces of pottery made by this Company at 
that period and others produced at a more recent date. Among these may 
be mentioned a blue and white cuspidore with relief decoration, some well- 
made drug jars, both blue and white, toby jugs in brown glaze and a portion 
of a tea service in cream ware, decorated with floral designs in relief. 



lUir.LETIN OF TITF, PEX^S^ L\'A X lA MUSEUM 



63 



Historical China. 

One of the most interesting collections in the ]\[useum is the Anglo- 
American pottery bearing printed views of old American buildings and portraits 
of American statesmen which was produced by Liverpool and Staffordshire 
potters from about 1790 to 1830. Among these there is a considerable number 
of Philadelphia views. These 
are printed usually in dark- 
blue ; some of the later ones, 
produced about 1835, are 
printed in black, red, green, 
light blue, purple and other 
colors. It is impossible to 
give a complete descriptive 
list of these designs in a brief 
article, but I shall attempt to 
describe a few of the more 
iniportant pieces in the collec- 
tion with brief historical 
sketches of the structures rep- 
resented. 

The oldest English pottery 
with printed American views 
was made at Liverpool from 
about 1790 to 1815. These 
pieces are of white, opaque 
pottery or cream colored ware 
bearing black prints. They 
are mainly pitchers for hold- 
ing water and punch bowls 
or toilet basins. Many of 
these bear alleged portraits of 
Washington and other Revo- 
lutionary heroes. Among tin- 
most interesting pieces of thi> 
kind, acquired by the Mu- 
seum, is a large punch bowl 
decorated on one side with a 
portrait of General Washing- 
ton and on the other a bust 
of Benjamin Franklin, while 
in the front is a medallion of 
John Adams and on the opposite side a whole length figure intended to represent 
Washington surrounded by trophies and flags of the United States and a ribbon 
bearing this inscription : "By virtue and valour we have freed our country, 
extended our commerce and laid the foundation of a great empire." In the 
centre is a full-rigged sailing vessel and the date of manufacture, 1800. This 
was produced when John Adams was President of the L'nited States. 




PUNCH BOWL, 



IVERPOOL CREAMWARE 
ngton, Adams and Franklin 
ated .Soo 



64 



BULLETIN OF THE PEN NSYL\'ANL\ MUSEUM 



Waterworks, Philadelphia. 

Acorn and oak leaf border. By R. Stevenson & Williams, Cobridge, England. Printed in dark blue. 

The Waterworks building was erected in 1800 in Centre or Penn Square 
at Broad and Market Streets, where the public buildings now stand. It was 

irre\erently called the "Pepper Box." on 
acLOunt of its shape. The water was forced 
tiom the Schuylkill River into this building 
through pipes for distribution throughout 
ihe city. In 1818, a steam engine at Fair- 
nount was used to raise the water from the 
luer The Centre Square structure, which 
was (jf marble, was torn down in 1828. This 
design, which is printed in dark blue, was 
] I ( )bably taken from the original painting 
1)\ Thomas Birch, although Cornelius Tie- 
Ixiut engraved a similar view from a draw- 
mg bv Barralett. 

Some of the old woutlen water pipes 
weie recently unearthed in Market Street 
w bile digging for the subway. Sections of 
these pipes, which are in a remarkable state 
of preservation, have been secured for exhi- 
liition in Memorial Hall. 




WATERWORKS, PHILADELPH 



The Dam and Waterworks, Philadelphia. 

Flower and fruit border. Staffordshire, England, maker unUnown. Printed in dark blue. 

This is a view of the Fairmount Dam and Waterworks on the Schuvlkill 
River. In the background may be seen the conservatory and greenhouses of 





THE DAM AND WATERWORKS 
Side Wheel Steamboat 



THE DAM AND WATERWORKS 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANL-\ MUSEUM 



65 



Pratt's Gardens at Lemon Hill. In the foreground is a schooner-rigged steam- 
boat with paddle z^-/iccl on side, toward the forward part of the boat. 
The bequest of Airs. Frederic Graff. 



The Dam and Waterworks, Philadelphia 

Same maker and border design as preceding. 

In foreground a double stern zeheel boat 
loaded with passengers. 

Library, Philadelphia^ 

Rose leaf medallion border. By J. and \V. Ridgway, 
Hanley, England. Printed in dark blue. 

''The Library Company of Philadelphia" 
was projected by Dr. Benjamin Franklin in 
1 73 1. It was chartered in 1742, and the corner 
stone of the Philadelphia Library Building was 
laid in August, 1789, at the corner of Fifth 
and Library Streets, the structure, as here rep- 
resented, being completed in the following 
year. It was torn down in 1886 to make room for the present Drexel 

Woodlands, near Philadelphia. 




LADELPHIA LIBP 
y J. and W. Ridgw 



Buildins 



Eagle, flower and scroll border. By Joseph Stubbs, Bursle 



Kngla 



d. Printed in dark blue. 

This is a view of Will- 
iam Hamilton's country 
seat, the "Woodlands," 
where now is the cemetery 
of that name. The build- 
ing was erected in the 
eighteenth century, before 
the Revolution, on the 
west bank of the river 
Schuylkill, south of Chest- 
nut Street, then four miles 
from the city, but now in 
the heart of West Philadel- 
])hia. It was one of the 
most imposing country res- 
idences in the vicinity of 
Philadelphia and the 
grounds were celebrated 
for the extensive number of 
rare trees and plants which 
adorned the m. AVilliam 
Hamilton was a nephew of 
WOODLANDS, PHILADELPHIA Govcmor Hamilton. He 

By Joseph Stubbs -was a patrou of the fine 

arts and one of the first collectors of paintings in Pennsylvania. The property 
was purchased in 1840 for a cemetery. The house is still standing, in almost 




66 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



its original condition, and the bright ^-ellow coloring of its wahs renders it a 
picturesque and conspicuous object on its eminence overlooking the river. 

William Groombridge, a Baltimore artist, painted the Woodlands in 1811, 
and a Philadelphian named Beck made a sketch of the same subject about 1814. 




United States Hotel, 
Philadelphia 

Tree and foliage border. By S. Tarns & 

Company, Staffordshire, England. 

Printed in dark blue. 

The United States Hotel, the 
principal hostelry of Philadel- 
phia, in its day, was erected in 
Chestnut Street, on the site of 
the present Philadelphia Bank, 
opposite the Custom House 
( formerly the Second United 
States Bank), between Fourth 
and Fifth Streets, and was 
opened for guests in 1826. The 
building was sold thirty years 
later. Many prominent men 
were entertained at this hotel 
during its existence, among 
others. Gen. William Henrv 



UNiTED STATES HOTEL, PHILADELPHIA 
By S, Tams & Company 



later day, 



Harrison, and, at 
Charles Dickens. 

This is one of the handsomest of the Philadelphia plates and the deep blue 
coloring is unsurpassed. 



Pennsylvania. 
Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Rose leaf inedallion border. 
By J. and W. Ridgway, Hanley, 
England. Printed in dark blue. 

The Pennsylvania 
Hospital property, occu- 
pying a solid block, is 
bounded by Eighth and 
Ninth, and Spruce and 
Pine Streets. The cor- 
ner stone of the eastern 
wing was laid in 1755. 
but the main portion of 
the building was not 
completed until 1805. 
The statue of Williain 
Penn, which stands in 



Jtf% 


Ik 


^^K^^f ^'^^^C^fUji ^ .jJmB 


IS 




^ 





PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL, PHILADELPHIA 
By J and W . Ridgway 



the grounds, facing Pine Street, was presented by John Penn, a grandson, in the 
year 1804. 



DULLETIX OF THE PEX XSM.N'AXIA MUSEUM 



C7 



Penn's Treaty 

Stencil or set pattern border consisting of diamond-shaped figures. By Thomas Green, Fenton, England 
Printed in green, brown, black, light blue, etc. 



A man in three-cornered hat and Quaker 
dress, representing William Penn, stands be- 
side a kneeling companion who is holding 
open the mouth of a sack for the inspection 
of two Indians, who stand at the right. The 
latter are engaged in conversatidii with l\-nn 
over the contents of the bag. 

Thomas Green produced print-figured 
earthenware from about 1847 to 1859. 

The conception of the engraver of this 
design was indeed vague, as the Treaty Elm 
itself, under which Penn, in 1682, made his 
treaty of friendship and good will with the 
Indians, is not represented. In its place are 
nondescript trees with chimps of foliage sur- 
mounted by bunches of unrecognizable fruit. 

There are several varieties of this subject 
in which the figures differ in number and 
position. 




PENN^S TREATY 
By Tt 



WITH THE 
imas Green 



DUME 
Now thi 



Dumb Asylum, PhiladelphieiL 

vilh medallions containing vases, flowers and landscapes. Stafibrdshire, England. 
Maker unknown. Printed in light purple or lilac, blue and green. 

This is a view of the Pennsylvania 
Institution for the Education of the Deaf 
and Dumb at Broad and Pine Streets, 
Philadelphia, now occupied by the 
School of Industrial Art of the Penn- 
s\-lvania Museum. The building was 
completed in 1825 from designs by 
Haviland, the chief architectural feature 
being the fine Doric portico upon the 
liroad Street facade. Extensive addi- 
tions were made to the building at a 
later period without changing the ap- 
]iearance of the front. The Institution for 
the Deaf and Dumb is now located in 
Alt. Airy, Philadelphia. 

This view is copied from an engrav- 
mg which was published by Hinton & 
Simpkin & Marshall. London, 1831. 
Engraved and printed by Fenner, Sears 
& Co., from a drawing bv C. Burton. 




ASYLUM, PHILADELPHIA 
School of Industrial Art of the 



68 



BULLETIN OF THE PEXNSYL\'AXL\ MUSEUM 



Staughton's Church, PhiladelphiaL 

Vine leaf border. By Ralph Stevenson, Cobridge, England. Printed in dark blue. 

Dr. William Staughton.one of the most eloquent 
Baptist preachers of his time, organized a church 
in Philadelphia in 1811, which was dedicated in the 
following- year. This church was erected on the 
south side of Sansoni Street between Eighth and 
Ninth Streets, at a cost of $40,000. The building 
was of wood and brick, having a rotunda ninety 
feet in diameter and a seating capacity of 2500. 
About the year 1823, Dr. Staughton accepted an- 
other call and the property was afterwards known 
as the Sanson! Street Baptist Church. It was one 
of the remarkable buildings of the city, having 
been designed by Alills, who was a pupil of 
Latrobe, and probably the first American who set 

up as a professional architect on a home training alone. 

This view was used by two different English makers, the one here figured 

occurring on a small cup-plate in the Museum collection. 

The other design was issued by John and ^^■illiam Ridgway of Hanlev, 

England, about 1830. This occurs also in dark blue lint possesses a diflierent 

border device, on plates of breakfast size. 




STAUGHTON'S CHURCH 

PHILADELPHIA 

By Ralph Stevenson 



CaLpitol. Ha.rrtsburg, Pennsylvania. 

Tree and foliage border. By .S. Tarns & Company, Staffordshire, England. Printed in dark blue. 

The view on this rare 
piece shows the old Capi- 
tol buildings, which were 
finished in 1 82 1. The same 
view occurs on each side. 

Among the other Phil- 
adelphia views in the Mu- 
seum collection may be 
briefl}- mentioned the 
United States Bank, which 
is still standing on Third 
Street below Chestnut ; 
several ditTerent views of 
Fairmount Waterworks, in 
various colors ; Upper 
Ferry Bridge over the 
river Schuylkill, and the 
Race Bridge leading to the ^^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^ harrisburg, pa, 

waterworks. B^ S. Tams & company 




BULLETIX OF THE PKN XSVLX'ANIA JIUSEUM 



69 



Girard's Bank, PhiladelphiSL 

Floral border. By J. & J. Jackson, Burslem, England. Printed in red, etc. 

The Bank of North America was 
incorporated in 1781 by an ordinance 
of the American Congress. In the 
following year a charter was accepted 
from the State of Pennsylvania. In 
1 79 1 it was incorporated as the United 
States Bank. The charter expired on 
March 4, 181 1. The building repre- 
sented in this view was erected in 
1795, and is still standing on the west 
side of Third Street, south of Chest- 
nut. It was occupied by the Bank nf 
the United States, until purchased 
by Stephen Girard. some time between 
1812 and 1816. In the pediment over 
the portico may be seen the carvings 
of the American Eagle and Cornu- 
copia of Plent}-, below which is the 
date of founding, 1795. 





MEMORIAL HALL, FAIRMOUNT 
PHILADELPHIA 
", & R. Pratt & Company, Fenton, Ei 



The practice of illustrat- 
ing buildings on potter}- was 
discontinued by English pot- 
ters somewhere about 1840. 
A few special designs, how- 
ever, were produced by two 
or three firms in England, in 
1 876, for the Centennial Expo- 
sition. Among these is one 
which is particularly interest- 
ing to Philadelphians for the 
reason that it bears a printed 
engraving of [Memorial Hall. 
These were printed in colors, 
the plates having broad, sol- 
idly tinted borders with sten- 
ciled gold marginal designs. 
Two examples of this pattern 
ma\' be seen in the Museum 
collections, one with a tur- 
quoise blue, and the other 
w-ith a pink border. 



70 



BULLETIN OF THE PENXSYLX'AXIA MUSEUM 



"Lowestoft" ChinaL 




CUP AND SAUCER 

hildren Playing Marble 

" Lowestoft" Style 
inese, Eighteenth Cent 



We do not intend to discuss the various theories advanced by different 
authorities, as to tlie urigin (if the so-called "Lowestoft" wares, but assuming 

that the con trovers)' has at last been 
settled and that it is now generally ad- 
mitted that the china, found in America, 
which has gone under the name of 
"Lowestoft," is, in reality, of Chinese 
origin, both in paste and in decoration, 
the purpose of this paper is merely to 
illustrate and describe a few interesting 
pieces which have lately been added to 
the Museum collection. 

The bequest of Miss Cornelia Thomp- 
son included two widely differing pat- 
terns of this so-called "Lowestoft"' type 
of hard porcelain, unquestionably of 
Chinese origin, but decorated for the 
European market. One of these is a 
small cup and saucer with a design in 
enamel colors representing English children playing marbles. The border is of 
that characteristic style, so often seen on this variety of ware, composed of blue 
and gold stars. The subject is one evidently copied from a drawing or painting 
that was sent to China to fill an order. 

An exceedingly interesting service, evidently intended for a customer in 
Sweden, is decorated with the heraldic bearings of the Boonhoff family, as shown 
in the accompanying illustration of a cream jug and cup and saucer. 

One of the most daintily and simply decorated, as well as attractive, exam- 
ples of this class of Oriental ware in the Museum is a small bowl bearing on one 
side the arms of the United States in gold, red and black. The device is supposed 
to have been painted in 
China shortly after the 
Revolutionary War and 
may possibly have been in- 
tended for some prominent 
American family. 

Belonging to the same 
class of decorated Oriental 
porcelain are those pieces 
painted with illustrations 
of scriptural stories, myth- 
ological scenes, European 
landscapes and trading ves- 
sels. A representative col- 
lection of these several P*'^"r o"" tea service 

■ , ■ , ■ ,, For Swedish Market 

varieties may be seen m the •■Lowestoft" st 'e 

Museum, together with a Chinese, Eighteenth Century 




BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANHA MUSEUM 



71 



rare dinner plate labeled on the face, in large lettering, "Gritsholm," a genuine 
piece from the service executed in China for the royal palace at Gripsholm, 
Sweden. 

There are in many English collections numerous pieces of hard paste porce- 
lain known_as heraldic china decorated with armor- 
ial bearings, crests, etc., which are still known by 
the name "Lowestoft." These pieces in reality are 
of Chinese production, having been decorated to 
order in China from drawings, prints, or paintings 
furnished_J;o the Oriental artist. There are a num- 
ber of pieces of this class of porcelain in the 
Museum, one of which is here figured. 

A plate in the collection, bequeathed to the 
Museum by the late Edward S. Qarke. is a curious 
example of Chinese work in copying European 
designs. This plate, which belongs to the latter 
part of the eighteenth century, is embellished with ^i 

a painted landscape and water view showing shep- 
herds in European dress, of a hundred years ago, tending flocks of sheep. On 
the water may be seen Chinese junks and row boats, while on the farther shore 
are sheds and other buildings of European design. The work is executed in the 
most careful st^le of the Chinese painter on the finest quality of egg-shell 
porcelain. 

There are also in the collection a number of similar pieces painted in imi- 
tation of European copper-plate engravings, and it requires the most careful 




TEA CUP 
of United States 
owestoft" Style 
Eighteenth Century 




ripsholm, Sweden 
Lowestoft" Style 
', Eighteenth Century 



HERALDIC PLATE 

" Lowestoft " Style 

Chinese, Eighteentn Century 



examination to discover the fact that the fine lines are produced with a brush. 
All of these various styles of decoration have been heretofore known as "Low- 
estoft," and these pieces have been gathered together into separate cases and 
labeled "Old Chinese Porcelain in So-called Lowestoft Style." 



"JZ BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANLV MUSEUJI 

The recent remarkable discovery of pottery molds and fragments of pottery 
and soft paste porcelain, on the site of the unimportant factory at Lowestoft, 
England, has demonstrated beyond question, that the hard paste ware which 
has for a generation been known to collectors as "Lowestoft" was never produced 
in England, but was of Oriental manufacture. A small number of genuine 
Lowestoft pieces, from the molds discovered, are known in England, but they 
are entirely different in paste, decoration and appearance from anything found 
in this country. Certainly no genuine piece of English Lowestoft ware exists 
in any musemn in America and it is probable that none can be found on this 
side of the Atlantic. It may be safely assumed that every piece of hard paste 
ware in this country which has been supposed to be Lowestoft, is of Chinese 
workmanship, brought here by sailing vessels or by the East Lidia Company, 
while those pieces of soft paste porcelain and white pottery resembling the 
so-called Lowestoft style in decoration are merely examples of that numerous 
class of ware which was produced at a score or more of English potteries a 
hundred years or so ago, but which in reality bear little resemblance to the real 
products of the insignificant Lowestoft factory, which was closed in 1804. 

The peculiarities of decoration which mark this class of Oriental ware. — 
characteristics which, by accident rather than design, are suggestive of the 
real Lowestoft style, — render it so different in appearance from the average 
Chinese productions that it will probably continue to be known among collectors 
and dealers by this term, although a more appropriate and less confusing name 
should be adopted, such as False Lowestoft or Chinese Lowestoft. 

Edwin Atlee B.\rber. 



THE ART DEPARTMENT OF THE SCHOOL 

The School of Industrial Art of the Pennsylvania ^luseum, whose origin 
was the Centennial Exposition of 1876, has maintained to a peculiar degree its 
avowed purpose of dealing strictly with the problems of art education — funda- 
mentall}' and generally — and art applied, specifically. Lentil its inception so little 
had been attempted in the direction of the improvement of our manufactures 
by the infusion of better ideas of taste, style, and color, that the contrast of the 
American displays of the products was sadly to their disadvantage side by side 
with the French, the English, and in fact all the civilized peoples. 

Our "splendid isolation" was in part accountable for this ; the long journey 
to lands where sight was to be had of inspiring subjects practically cut us off 
from such benefit, and we had then no collections at hand to visit. The almost 
thirty 3'ears which have elapsed have fairly bridged the chasm, and we are all 
but next door to what were then unheard of attainments to any except a few 
favored of fortune. 

The further problem of art education was met as it best could be by the 
limited means available for demonstration, and it has since been handled with 
the increased powers which time and growth have put into the school's posses- 



BULLETIN OF THE PEN XSVLNAX L\ MUSEUM 



73 



sion; and on the basis of experience and practice it has built up a thoughtful. 
sound and practical system of training students to understand the principles of 
art as they govern good design, or good judgment in matters of taste, regardless 
of what the student's future application of these principles may be. By knowing 
these general and universal laws of right proportion, right balance, right relation, 
he can safely undertake to execute, as well as to criticise ; and he will also realize 
that whatever special line of applied art he may choose — work in wood, in metal, 
in stone, in silk, in glass — he has need of all the help of guiding knowledge which 
he can possibly gain, in order to enable him to infuse into the material he labors 
upon that subtle something which we call art, and which is not merely fancy, 
but purpose. 

The school has there- 
fore set itself to impress 
upon its p u p i 1 s. and 
through many of them the 
communities, that "Art's a 
service."' not a fantasy. 
That art is a serious study, 
and not a waiting for some- 
thing to develop of itself. 
Not something outside of 
one's self and life, but 
wholly the drawing out— 
the educating of the mind 
and character, through the 
thoughts and bringing Hiat 
to the surface. 

In other words, it is 
teaching the understanding 
and appreciating what is 
meant by beauty, in a way 
to make that understand- 
ing so enter into the con- 
crete and material that the 
crudest substance shall be 
so informed by the hands of the maker who has this thought and knowledge and 
power, that he presents it before our eyes transfigured. And this presentation is 
applied art. Knowing something of art and expressing it in any actual form 
means one must understand the properties of certain materials sufficiently well 
to work with them — to carve in wood or stone, to chase or mold metal, to lay 
mosaic, to weave tapestries, or to do any of the many things which begin as 
necessities of living, and develop into the highest expression of design. 

The school has taken up this great problem also, and produces through its 
students demonstrations of its practical training. "To what end is this done?" 
is the ever repeated inquiry regarding every subject. If a leaf or flower is 
studied, primarily though it be for the practice of drawing or of painting, 
the next step is the consideration of its use. The suggestiveness for purposes 
of design is the first thought in the selection of almost every model put before the 
classes. 




GOTHIC ALMS BOX 
executed by William B 
A Pupil of the School 



74 



BULLETIN OF THE PEXXSYLVAXIA MUSEUM 



This is quite as true in relation to the study of historic examples and the 
work in the Museum, which the pupils regularly carry on. The culture which 
acquaintance with the best productions of the past gives, and which must be 
acquired, is also absolutely necessary in order to adapt these derived motives to 
the demands of design. It goes without saying, that to be able to speak in a 
language one must understand it, and to think in it, understand it particularly 
well. The study of the character, then, of each national art, is therefore impera- 
tive in order to freely express ideas in the spirit of that people, and this is only 
possible to a student, and one well directed, \^^ithout the actual example it 

would not be possible to study 
either the body or the spirit of the 
art of Egypt, of Greece, of Italy, of 
any country or race which has 
given us its history by this record. 
The most carefully printed plate is 
the merest ghost of the living pres- 
ence, and can but serve to recall 
what has been. Indeed the relation 
here is just as vital as that between 
the student's sketch of his idea on 
paper and his creation of the real 
and visible object afterwards ; in 
no way is it possible to demonstrate 
to him the purpose of his prelimi- 
nary thought and preparation, the 
processes of his mind and observa- 
tion, so clearly and so effectually 
and so sensibly, as by the construc- 
tion in its three dimensions of what 
was nothing more than the fore- 
shadowing of a "coming event." 

It has so happened that in this 
country, art was understood to 
mean strictlv framed pictures which 
could be carried from wall to wall, 
or statuary leading an equally free existence. 

Much time, much patience, much of the "art education" spoken of under its 
several heads, passive and active, has been required to secure for applied art the 
moderately high position rather grudgingly accorded. In the old days when 
Michael Angelo carved statues, or painted ceilings, or designed buiklings, or 
pedestals, or tombs, or altar figures ; and Cellini made a Perseus, or a saltcellar, 
or a shield ; and all the other thousand and one recognized "artists" turned their 
hands to setting jewels, or making caskets for them, or swords, or tapestries, or 
windows, there was no such distinction between "fine" and "applied" art. Raphael 
painted his San Sisto ^Madonna as a church banner ; it was one of his many 
commissions, and had as much art put into it as he could give. His stanze 
have the same, and certainly they are varied enough, and contrasts to the Sistine 
Mother. And the reason of all this seems to be that the desire to paint or carve 




GARDEN VASE 
Original Design by Sara 

A Pupil of the Scno 
H. H. Battles Second Pri 



BULLETIN OF THE PENXSYL\"AXL\ MUSEUil 



75 



or cast zi'cll. was so strong that it simply was seized as an outlet for the artistic 
impulse expressed on as high a plane as professional attainment allowed, and 
the medium and the purpose (other than that of expression) counted for 
naught. It was the idea, and the beauty and power of its presentation which 
gave it rank as a work of art, both fine and applied. 

It is something of this spirit the school hopes to see appear in its students 
and in the various communities where they live. 

In every course established since its foundation there has been put before 




METAL WORK 
Buckle — Hippocampus Motive 
uted by George Fass, a Pupil of the 



the class all the inducement which the attamments of predecessors could offer. 
It has been taught that any one of the many forms of applied art would rec|uire 
all the education, all the thought, all the effort, and all the power of the practi- 
tioner to bring his work up to the possibilities of the craft. And these possibili- 
ties are shown only in the examples of the best craftsmen, gathered in the 
museums. 

Perhaps it is a little early in our national life to expect the standards of the 
golden age of Greece, or the high Renaissance ; but the most important thing for 
our students to learn is that such standards did exist, and their demands were 
met bv the artist-artisans. 



"6 BULLETIN OF THE PEXXSYLWVXLV ML'SEUAI 

The machine, of course, whirs its soulless way through our life as it now 
exists, and gives too much the cue by which judgment is passed. It cuts the 
pattern to which one is expected to conform : and the man who sets it in motion, 
and feeds its greedy maw, is pretty well in its power, and the purchaser of the 
product is under its iron heel as well. 

The school has tried to reckon with this dragon in the path also, and has 
tried to teach that if a thing is to be duplicated fifty thousand times there is 
no real reason why it should be an ugly or inartistic thing. The Greek vases, 
besides their exquisite design, had a certain vital quality due to the contact with 
their makers' sensitive fingers, quite independent of their actual proportions. 
The clutch of the lathe, and the biting teeth of the many steel monsters which 
gnaw into the material with which they are put in contact, can never give this 
creative touch. It can only be hoped that the modern mind will conceive for 
modern methods of production something which shall be as good machine work 
as the best formerly produced was good liand zi'ork. There will be always that 
difference between them, of the real and the artificial, but perhaps not always the 
artificial pretending to be the real. 

The study of the human figure in the school has the same purpose and sig- 
nificance as that of the plant or animal : the understanding of its structure and 
expression, and the appreciation of its possibilities as an element in design. 
Every pose is arranged to mean something decorative — to one mind a poster, 
to another a fountain, to another a stained-glass subject, to another a caryatid — 
all dependent upon the suggestiveness of the view, and the receptivity of the 
mind of the student. The purely academic method of drawing has been elimi- 
nated, and a fresher, more directly useful, and probably a more interesting plan 
adopted. Any professional model will decide how much easier it is to maintain 
a pose which represents a character than a merely anatomical position, and it is 
quite as true that the interest and energy of the students will flag less if the 
subject is one opening possibilities to their minds instead of limiting them to 
the matter of bones and muscles. The decorative application of the figure, either 
in its simplest phase as a page enrichment, or the crowning feature of a cathedral 
dome, offers a range quite adequate for the full compass of the human under- 
standing. 

With the adaptation of Historic styles to such subjects as lend themselves: 
and the derivation of decorative elements from nature the school concerns itself 
as sources for design motives. Those fantastic combinations which can be 
traced to no legitimate origin receive no encouragement. Disordered fancy does 
not belong in an institution of healthy growth. Individual peculiarities, the 
advent into outlandish regions and the very "nouveati" exuberances have no 
place in the orderly development of ideas, and the inventive faculty. Imagina- 
tion has its full, proper, and high place — but under control. The grotesque 
Gothic is not the type most studied ; the distorted Japanese is avoided ; and the 
variety, invention and richness of the first ; the facility, life, and natural char- 
acter of the second considered as the valuable contribritions made to our cumu- 
lative education in art. And in nature the defective, the distorted, the accidental 
is passed by, likewise, and the best type possible secttred as the subject of study. 
Each race, caste, division of Nature, furnishes elements of strength, of inspira- 
tion, and of fundamental support. Education in applied art is to learn how to 
distinguish and select and, with taste and judgment, to utilize. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



17 



The Gothic ahns box designed and executed by William Brooke Smith, 
a pupil of the school, shows the application of the study of a pronounced 
stvle to the constructive work. The examples of Italian Gothic presented_ to 
the Museum by ?\Irs. John Harrison furnished the motives of the historical 
origin of the idea, the character of the ornament being carefully studied from the 
obfects, and the elements derived, utilized in an original way, but controlled by 
the principles governing the style. 

As an evidence of individuality in a full use of the prevailing "art nouveau," 
the original garden vase designed and executed by Sara Leopold is as good an 
example as has been produced in pottery. Conforming only to the demands of 
the stvle in its requirements to be fanciful, rather than serious, the result has 
proven a very happy combination of the two qualities. 

Another illustration shows the use of a natural form — the little sea horses 
fished up from the Adriatic Sea. The careful studies of these were adapted to 
the jeweler's design suggested by them, and the molds in which the silver 
buckle was cast, made from the very model of the original, and upon this the 
final chasing and gem setting were wrought. 

Howard Fremont Str.vtton, 

Director of Art Dcpartiuciit. 

mm 



PIGEON WHISTLES 

A curious custom prevails in China wnich is of considerable interest to 
collectors of musical instruments. Every morning the rate of exchange between 
the copper cash and the silver tael ( the unit of monetary value in China, equal to 
one and one-third ounces ) is regulated at a meeting of the representatives of the 
various banking houses of Peking 
and instead of telegraphing or tele- 
phoning the result, homing pigeons 
are used to distribute these daily 
reports, the quotations being at- 
tached to their legs. Whistles made 
of small gourds or pieces of bam- 
boo, are inserted between the tail 
feathers of the pigeons, which latter, 
when liberated, fly straight to the 
diflrerent banking houses to which 
they belong. The whistles are often 
carved in the shapes of animals' 
heads or in other fanciful designs 
and frequently represent a series of 
pipes placed side by side, each one 
emitting a different note. Mr. R. E. 
Difenderfer, of Philadelphia, who 
has made several visits to China, 
has presented to the Museum two of 




PIGEON WHISTLES 
ide of Gourd and Bambi 



78 



BULLETIN OF THE PEXNSyL\-ANIA MUSEUM 




these whistles, which are here 
illustrated. One, made of a 
tiny gourd, is in the form of 
a miniature vase, with a large 
and small opening in the lid 
and a small orifice in each 
handle, each of which emits 
a different note. The second 
example is formed of three 
graduated sections of bam- 
boo, each being ornamented 
with colored designs, and, be- 
ing exceedingly light and 
thin, does not impede the 
flight of the bird through the 
air. Sometimes as many as fifteen, or more, of these short bamboo tubes will be 
combined in one whistle. The noise produced frightens off hawks and other 
birds of prey. The Chinese name for these whistles is ko-tzc. 

Scarcely less interesting than the pigeon whistles are the tiny cages in 
which the ingenious Chinese imprison crickets for the purpose of enjoying their 
musical chirping. These contrivances are in the form of diminutive, cylindrical 
bird cages, woven from very fine straw or strips of bamboo, near the top of 
which is a little platform on which the insect may comfortably perch while he is 
being carried from place to place. A lid at the top permits the introduction or 
removal of the performer, while above this a small loop, like that of a basket, 
serves as a handle by which the cage can be lifted. When in motion the cricket 
usually remains cjuiet, but after his cage has been set down he soon begins his 
little song, of which the Chinese are especiall)' fond. 

AVho but the Oriental would think of introducing into business life these 
poetical conceits, whereby the monotony of prosaic occupations may be relieved 
bv a touch of estheticism ? 




BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYL\'ANL\ MUSEUM 



79 



WALL PAPERS 

Although paper wall hangings 
have been made in China for sev- 
eral centuries they do not seem to 
have been imported into Europe 
before the sixteenth century and 
are not known to liave reached 
England until about a hundred 
years later. In the United States 
wall papers were first imported 
from England about 1737, although 
at that time they were considered a 
luxurv w^hich few Americans could 
aiTord to indulge in. Not until near 
the end of the eighteenth century 
(about 1785) was wall paper made 
in this country. Some interesting 
patterns, manufactured in Philadel- 
phia, were recently taken from an 
old farm house near West Chester, 
Pennsvlvania, where they had been 
hung in the year 1808. Instead of 
being made in rolls, wall papers 
were at that time made in sheets, 
perhaps thirty inches long, and 
pasted together. The patterns were 
printed by hand from carved 
blocks, each color being printed 
separately. The paper of these old 
examples is exceedingly crude and 
coarse and the designs are simple, 
stiff and conventional. The colors 
of the patterns are sombre in tone 
and few in number, brown in vari- 
ous shades predominating, \\niite 
and black have been used quite 
freely and here and there we find a 
touch of blue, light green and 
orange. The ef¥ect of these colors 
when covering the wall of a room 
must have been exceedingl}' de- 
pressing and it would seem prob- 
able thai paper hanging, at that par- 
ticular period, was not a particularlv 
profitable trade. 

Wall-paper designing is taught 
at the school connected with this 




ANTIQUE WALL PAPER, 




ANTIQUE WALL PAPER 

and White Desisn, Brown Ground 

sde in Phiiadoiphia, about 1808 




ANTIQUE WALL PAPER, 

n and Feather Motive, in Bi 

Made in Philadelphia 



FRIEZE DESIGN 



8o 



DUI.LETIX OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




WALL PAPER DESIGN, GRAPES 

Ohve Greens on Light Brown Ground 

By Frederick Frck, a Pupil of the School 

cess of printing is studied. The 
student grinds and prepares his 
own colors, and the blocks and 
rolls for printing are kept before 
him. His sketch is entirely free 
from all restrictions and he stud- 
ies without any sense of re- 
straint, and as the design takes 
final shape the limits imposed by 
the process of manufacture are 
laid before him. Walter Crane 
demonstrated, by freely express- 
ing his ideas on paper with a 
brush, that the machine could do 
more than was believed of it. 
Like every branch of applied de- 
sign taught in the school the 
idea is first of all to put as much 
art into the particular work as 
possible. 

An advisory committee of 
practical wall-paper designers 
and manufacturers assists the 
school to direct its work toward 
the field of practical application. 
Two original designs, the recent 
work of students, are here shown. 



Museum. The demands of the 
trade, to the extent of putting 
before the students all the avail- 
able examples of current pat- 
terns, are always kept in view. 
The students are expected to ad- 
here to good drawing and to 
harmonize their colors, and to 
bear in mind that the wall is a 
flat and also firm surface. Care- 
ful studies are made of plant 
forms, which are afterwards con- 
ventionalized, the greatest care 
being taken that these designs 
shall be true to the construction 
and growth of the subjects. The 
teazel design is an example illus- 
trating this principle. 

The practical preparation of 
the designs is insured by visits 
to the factories, where the pro- 




WALL PAPER DESIGN 

In Browns and Greens 

! taken from the Common Te 

By a Pupil of the School 



BULLpyrlN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



ENAMELS ON METAL 

Although the art of enameling on metal is of considerahle antiquity, no 
attempt seems to have been made in the United States to apply colored glasses 
in a melted state to copper, previous to the nineteenth century. The first Ameri- 
can to enter into this business, so far as known, was Edwin Bishop, of Seventh 
Street above Poplar Street, Philadelphia. In the year 1842, Bishop exhibited 
in the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, several specimens of his enameling on 
metal, two of which are now in this Museum. One of them is a square plate 
measurino- about 2J/2 x 3 inches, which is covered with a heavy, hard enamel of 
(lark blue with fine white mottlings. The second example is a disc of cop]3er 
2^ inches in diameter resembling in shape a watch dial, bearing an excellently 
painted group of flowers in natural colors on an opaque white ground, pruduced 
by melting white oxide of lead with glass. 
These are, probably, the oldest specimens 
of enamels of American workmanship that 
are known. 

In 1874 some curious experiments in 
enameling were conducted in New York, 
on a colossal scale. Mr. R. M. Hunt, a 
prominent architect, planned to reproduce 
on the front face of a four-story business 
building on Broadway some of the decora- 
tions of the famous Alhambra, from col- 
ored drawings prepared for the purpose. 
Mr. Edward Lycett, one of the foremost 
professional china painters of the day, was 
commissioned to paint the designs on large 
enameled iron plates furnished by the Scott 
Siddons Enameling Company of that city. 
The patterns were painted in ceramic col- 
ors, principally red and blue, outlined in 
black, and the plates, some of them meas- 
uring 3x6 feet, were successfully fired. This was the most extensive work 
in enameling and enamel painting, ever executed in this country. The corrod- 
ing action of the elements, however, in time disfigured the work, which was 
subsequently hidden under a heavy coating of paint. 

Enameling on metal has never been developed into an important manufac- 
ture in this country. A prominent firm in this business is the O'Hara Wallham 
Dial Company, of Waltham, Mass. Until recently, the productions of this 
company were principally watch dials, badges, meter plates and similar manu- 
factures. Of late, however, work of a higher order of merit has been pro- 
duced, such as jewel boxes and trays with pleasing designs printed in colors. 

The most artistic work of this character yet produced in this country, is that 
of Mr. Louis C. Tiffany, of New York, which introduces an entirely new style 
of enamel. Instead of being painted in flat colors, on a plain white ground of 
enamel, the decorations are formed by applying directly to the metal glass-like 
enamels of various colors. Usually the decorations appear in relief in the metal 




ENAMEL ON METAL 

"lowers Painted in Colors 

Bishop, Philadelphia, i8 



82 



BL'LLETIX OF THE I'RXNSYr.WWl A MUSEUM 




itself and these are covered 
with enamels of appropri- 
ate colorings. The tones of 
color are particularly pleas- 
ing, being generally sub- 
dued and artistically com- 
bined. A fine example of 
Tiffany enamel is a circu- 
lar plate or tray, with raised 
figures of dragon flies and 
buttertfies in the colors of 
nature, on an orange red 
ground. This piece, which 
is owned by the Museum, 
was purchased at the Paris 
Exposition of 1900. 

The collection of old 
English, Erench and Ger- 
man enamels in the Bloom- 
field Moore collection is 
particularly representative 
and valuable. Among the 
most interesting objects is 
a large series of snutif and 
patch boxes. The accom- 
panying illustration, which is used through the courtesy of "Old China," shows 
eight of these boxes. On the top row is a bird-shape snuff box, two rectangular 
snuiT boxes with transfer printed decorations and a box with modeled figure and 
lid bearing a 
printed dragon 
design. On the 
lower line will be 
seen a box mod- 
eled in the shapi, 
of a chained bear, 
another represent- 
ing a tiger at- 
tacking a negro, 
a third in the 
form of a tur- 
baned head and a 
fourth represent- 
ing an apple. The 
boxes figured are 
English, made 
either at Batter- 
sea or Bilston be- 
tween 1750 and 
1800. 



ENAMELED METAL PLATE 

ef and Outlined Designs in Colored Ena 

By Louis C. Tiffany, 1900 




ENAMELED SNUFF BOXES 
inglish, Late Eighteenth Century 



BULLETIN OF THE PEXXSYLVAXIA MUSEUM 83 

EDITORIAL 

At the dedication of the new auditorium of the Detroit ^Museum of Art, in 
June last, Prof. Edward S. Morse, of the Boston ]Muscum of Fine Arts, dehv- 
ered an address, from which we quote as follows : 

"If one should enter the house of a well-ordered family and find no books on the 
shelves, nor pictures on the walls, nor bric-a-brac gathered about, he would consider the 
family of low culture, and if deafening shouts and banging doors were the order of the 
day, he would regard the family as barbarous as well. Similarly, if one visits a city and 
finds no public library nor picture gallery, while tumultuous racket of preventable noises 
assails the ear, he will come to a similar conclusion. 

"To the citizen the question naturally arises, of what practical use is a museum of 
art. Laying aside the profit of such a museum for the student, the artisan and the decora- 
tor, and the rational enjoyment it gives to thousands, it can be clearly demonstrated that a 
museum of art tends to the material gain of the community. The immediate gain comes 
from the throng of strangers who are drawn to the city by the attraction ofifered by such 
a museum, 

"If the designers of your city were asked where they studied, where they derived their 
motives for form and decoration, their answers would probably be similar to the answers 
of fifty-four of the most prominent designers in Boston. They, with one exception, admitted 
that the Museum of Art had been a very great help to them and the one e.xception said 
that he had visited the Museum several times. 

"The importance of museums of all kinds as part of the educational equipment of a 
community is being fully recognized. So important are provincial museums regarded in 
England as adjuncts to educational work that efforts are being made to secure an annual 
grant from the imperial government. Thomas Greenwood, of England, an eminent author- 
ity on the subject, expresses his belief that 'museums of the future must stand side by 
side with the library and the laboratory as part of the teaching equipment of the college 
and university, and in the great cities co-operate with the public library as one of the 
principal agencies for the enlightenment of the people.' " 

Tn man\- of our larger cities will be found more than one public museum, 
frequently several, which arc suppused to occup\- different fields in science and 
art. Sometimes the original purposes of these institutions arc lost slight of and 
consequently the}' encroach upon each other's fields to the detriment of their 
individual and collective usefulness. Competition among' museums in the same 
city is injurious, but, on the other hand, co-operation is absolutely necessary to 
reach the best results. If it were possible to combine under one roof all of the 
public museums in a municipalit}- the best results would be obtained, Init since, 
under existing conditions and conflicting' interests, this consolidation is not jirac- 
ticable, the public would be best served if each museuni were to adhere strictly 
to its legitimate field. 

There are in this cit}', as in Xew York and other places, several museimis. 
each of which is supposed to be confined to its particular field. }'et at least four 
of these inuseums possess more or less valuable collections of musical instru- 
ments, two or more of them have installed collections pertaining to ethnology 
and archaeology, while in other subjects there is more or less coinpetition in the 
ground which is being covered. The aims and purposes of these various 
museums are entirely different. One is supposed to be devoted to the natural 
sciences ; another to industrial art ; a third to ethnology and a fourth to com- 



84 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

niercial products, }et in all will be found certain groups of objects of a similar 
nature, and, in order to see tbem all, the greater part of a day must be consumed 
in passing from one museum to another. 

Would it not be to the best interests of these museums, and of the museum- 
visiting public, if some mutually advantageous system of exchange or loan could 
be arranged, whereby all collections and objects in esch special branch of art and 
science could be gathered together in that museum to which they would seem 
to properly belong? We believe this plan for placing the museums on the 
strongest and most logical basis is entirely feasible, and if it wore put into 
operation the value of the collections, so consolidated, and the educational use- 
fulness of these neighboring museums would be vastly increased. 

The want of adecjuate funds from which the public museums of this coun- 
try are suffering and the consequent inability of any one institution to emplo\' 
competent experts in all branches of the fine and industrial arts is painfully 
apparent in the existing installation of certain of their collections. No single 
curator, be he ever so versatile and experienced, can hope to thoroughly master, 
within the limits of a lifetime, all departments of human achievement. An inti- 
mate knowledge of one or two special subjects, and a superficial acquaintance 
with the many others, is all that the most industrious student can expect to 
acquire. There is, however, in almost every public museum, at least one spe- 
cialist who has, through the devotion of many years to a particular branch, 
become a recognized authority in his chosen field. Through his efforts a collec- 
tion is gathered together which for comprehensiveness and accuracv of labeling 
far surpasses the similar collections of other museums, and through which his 
institution acquires a world-wide reputation. In certain other departments, 
however, the same museum will probably be found to be lamentably deficient, the 
collections being surprisingly meagre and inaccurately labeled. This is true of 
every museum in this country, as will be apparent to any intelligent visitor. 

A partial remedy for this unsatisfactory condition of affairs could be pro- 
vided if the directors of the various art museums would co-operate for their 
mutual benefit. By an interchange of courtesies one museum might arrange to 
send a specialist for a few days to a sister institution in another city to examine 
and correctly name the objects in a particular department, for instance, Oriental 
lacquers, in return for the reclassification of one of its own departments, such 
as classical antiquities. If this plan prove inexpedient, as consuming too much 
time, a mutual agreement, at least, could be entered into, whereby unrecognized 
specimens could be sent to specialists in the various museums for identification 
and attribution. 

While the Pennsvlvania Museum endeavors to cover the entire field of art 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 85 

as thoroughly as its resources will permit, its ceramic collections are perhaps the 
strongest, having grown to such proportions that they now rank with the best 
and most representative collections, both from a historical and artistic stand- 
point, to be found on this side of the Atlantic. These collections include numer- 
ous groups of porcelains from China and Japan ; English and Continental china, 
antique and modern, including classical pottery of Rome and Greece ; pottery 
of the American Aborigines — Mexican. Peruvian. Mound Builders and Pueblo — 
and the only important and practically the only historically complete series of 
pottery and porcelain of the United States in existence. 

For several years our Bureau of Identification has been furnishing infor- 
mation to collectors in all parts of the country, and all museums are cordially 
invited to submit for attribution, any uncertain specimens of pottery or porce- 
lain which they may possess. This is at least a step toward the more extensive 
interchange of courtesies, as suggested above. 

NOTES 

Mr. August Gerber. of Cologne. Germany, recently paid the Museum a 
visit in reference to furnishing reproductions of statuary, bronzes, ivories and 
wood carvings of antiquity. Mr. Gerber has obtained a world-wide reputation 
through his artistic casts, which in texture and coloring are accurate copies of 
the originals. 

The collections of arms and armor and musical instruments have been 
entirely rearranged during the summer. 

The attendance at the Aluseum for three months was as follows : 
June, 30.404. 
July. 38.081. 
August. 44,108. 

The Twenty-ninth Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Museum and School 
of Industrial Art is ready. Copies may be had on application to the Curator of 
the Museum or the Principal of the School. 

Since the July number went to press, the following acquisitions have been 
received at the Museum : 

Carved ivory fan. eighteenth century. Chinese, bequest of Aliss Mary 
Clapier Coxe. 



eo BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

Tin enameled pottery jardiniere and tile panel, St. Cecilia, modem German, 
given by Mr. John T. Morris. 

Brussels shawl, black net, given by Mrs. H. C. Davis. 

Series of tools and appliances used in the Southern States in extracting 
turpentine from trees, added to the Frishmuth collection. 

Collection of Oriental embroideries and Japanese ivory carvings, previously 
on loan, presented by the heirs of Simon A. Stern, to be known as the Simon A. 
Stern Collection. These specimens have been relabeled and permanently 
installed. 

The ornamental tail pieces used in this number of the Bulletin were 
designed by pupils of the school, the peacock subject by F. R. Rainear and the 
floral motive by Grace E. James. The latter ornament is also used on the 
cover of the Twenty-ninth Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Museum and 
School of Industrial Art, recently issued. 

In August, Mr. Edward Armitage of the Technical College, Huddersfield, 
England, visited the Textile School. Mr. Armitage spent several days in going 
over the various departments and was much impressed by the superior system 
used, and the comprehensive curriculum. 

During the summer there have been important changes in the interior of 
the school building at Broad and Pine Streets. The auditorium has been entirely 
renovated and repainted in Colonial effect of white and buff. The students of 
the classes in interior decoration are already at work upon a frieze five feet in 
height, of Greek figures representing the Classic Arts. The lower ornamental 
borders will be stenciled, and decorative panels in low relief, executed by the 
modeling class, will be introduced below the windows. 

Mr. E. W. France, Director of the Textile Department, has been in Europe 
for the summer, visiting the great textile industries of France, Belgium and 
Great Britain. Mr. France's absence has not interfered with his usual activity 
in finding positions for his students. All the members of the graduating class 
of 1905, are in good positions, and many former students have been advanced to 
better ones than they held last year. The positions include those of Assistant 
Superintendents and Designers in Mills and Commission Houses. 

The School opens October 2d for day classes, and one week later for even- 
ing work. 




PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



MUSEUM COMMITTEE 

John Story Jenks, Chairman Mrs. W. T. Carter 



Alfred C. Lambdin- 
JoHsf T. Morris 
William Platt Pepper 
Miss Anna Blanchard 



Mrs. Wm. D. Frishmuth 
Mrs. John Harrison 
Miss Fannie S. Magee 
Miss Euzabkth C. Roberts 



HONOBARY CURATORS 

Textiles, Lace and Embroidery .Mrs. John H.arrison 

Oriental Pottery .Mrs. Jones Wistek 

European Porcelain Rrr. Alfred Duane. Pell 

Arms and Armor Corneuus Sie^-enson 

Furniture and Woodwork Gustav Ketteree 

Musical Instruments Mrs. W. ,D. Frishmuth 

^ Prints, Book Plates and Historic Seals Charles E. Dana 

Numismatics F. D. Lancenheim 

Philately Edward Russell Jones 

Goldsmith Work, Jewelry and Plate Chaiu.es Gedney King 

Sculpture, Marbles and Casts Alexander Stirling Calder 



^ 



ASSOCIATE COMMITTEE OF WOMEN TO THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



PRESIDENT 

Mrs. John Harrison 



vice-pnesiorNT 

Mrs. Frank K. Hipple 



SECHETflBY 

Mrs. Davib E. Dallam 



TRCASURCR 

Miss Ellen McMurtrib 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Miss 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Miss 
Miss 
Mi.=;s 
-Mrs. 



C. Cheyney-Bartol 
C. William Bergner 
Anna Blanchard 
Rudolph Blankenburg 
John H. Brinton 
Wm. T. Carter 
Margaret Clyde 
Margaret L. Corlies 
.A.D.\ M. Crozir 
Edward P. Davis 



Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison 
Miss Cornelia L. Ewing 
Mrs. Wm.. D,- Frishmuth 
Mrs. W. W. Gibds 
Mrs. Joseph Harrison 
Mrs. Robert Millar JanNKy 
Mrs. J. L, Ketierlinus 
Miss Nina Lea 
Miss Fannie S, Magee 
Mrs. Francis F, Milne . 
Mrs. S. P. S. Mitchell 



Mrs. Daniel S. Newhau. 
Mrs. Edward H. Ogden 
Mrs. Richard, Peters, Jr. - 
Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 
Mrs. Thomas Roberts 
Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 
Mrs. John Wister 
Mrs. Jones Wisiee 
Mrs! George Wood 
MissH. A. Zell 



the Sign o) the [vy Leaf in Ransom Strett Phlladelphic